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Is the WTO TRIPS Agreement
valid and self-executing in Brazil?

Brazilian Commentators’ Support for
the Supreme Court Requirement of a Presidential Executive Order

Most Brazilian commentators, authors and law professors agree with the requirement of a presidential Executive Order of enactment of the Portuguese translation of a treaty in order to give domestic legal effect to the obligations contracted with other countries. Some examples supporting the requirement of a presidential Executive Order of enactment for direct applicability of a Portuguese translation can be found in the following treatises and books on Brazilian constitutional law and international public law:

• JOSÉ FRANCISCO REZEK, Direito Internacional Público, p.69, item n. 34, 5th ed., 1995, Saraiva. Prof. Rezek, an acting judge of the International Court of Justice in the Hague, is a former Brazilian Supreme Court Justice, Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Brazilian ambassador.

• JOSÉ FRANCISCO REZEK, Direito dos Tratados, Rio de Janeiro, Forense, 1984, p. 385, § 322. • JOÃO GRANDINO RODAS, A publicidade dos tratados internacionais, São Paulo, RT, 1980, p. 200/201. Prof. Rodas is a former chief solicitor and legal advisor for the Itamaraty Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs).

• ANTÔNIO PAULO CACHAPUZ MEDEIROS, O Poder de Celebrar Tratados, Porto Alegre, Sérgio Antonio Fabris Ed., 1995, capítulo 7. Prof. Cachapuz is the current chief solicitor and legal advisor for the Itamaraty.

• JACOB DOLINGER, Acordo sobre os aspectos dos direitos de propriedade intelectual relacionados ao comércio – Trips – patente de invenção – Aplicabilidade do Acordo Trips no Brasil, in Revista Forense, vol. 342, pp.225/235.

• ANTONIO AUGUSTO CANÇADO TRINDADE, Repertório da Prática Brasileira do Direito Internacional Público, ed. Fundação Alexandre Gusdmão, Brasília, 1986. Prof. Trindade is a former general solicitor and legal advisor for the Itamaraty, now active judge of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in Costa Rica.

• NADIA DE ARAUJO, A internalização dos tratados no Brasil e os direitos humanos, in Os direitos humanos e o direito internacional, Renovar, Rio de Janeiro, 1999, p.63.  Prof. Araújo is one of the leading authorities in international law and MERCOSUR issues and editor of the MERCOSUR code. She has published the most up to date works on internalization of treaties into Brazilian domestic law.

• MIRTO FRAGA, Conflito entre Tratado Internacional e norma de Direito Interno, Rio de Janeiro, Forense, 1997, p.XII. Ms. Fraga was a legal advisor for the Senate.

• OTTO B. LICKS, O Acordo Sobre Aspectos dos Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual Relacionados ao Comércio" (The TRIPS Agreement), in Paulo Borba Casella (ed.), Guerra Comercial ou Integração Mundial pelo Comércio? A OMC e o Brasil (LTR ed., São Paulo, 1998).